Motivation plays an important part in the educational process. Many teachers are convinced that students believe that they can achieve their goals by their effectiveness when they have a high level of self-perception of competencies, that is, they highly value the abilities and competencies required to complete the tasks. They also value self-determination, that is, a sense of freedom while performing interesting and important activities.
Motivation is the sign that students who took part in the study are interested in the learning process. In terms of learning goals, mastery goals are more important to students than performance goals. Pupils are more interested in developing their competencies, expanding their knowledge and understanding through planned (conscious) learning than demonstrating skills or performing activities. In addition to the academic goals, students also have social goals.
Motivating Actions for Students
Here are some actions that most stimulate students and increase their motivation to learn. Teachers can follow these actions:
- The tasks and activities for students should be interesting, stimulating, and diverse, and the activities organized by the teacher in the learning process should help to develop a learning strategy; assignments should be related to previous (existing) knowledge of different school subjects and experiences in everyday life.
- Student autonomy – a teaching organization, should encourage students to be active, the teacher encourages students to take the initiative for their learning, the teacher accepts all students’ suggestions for classroom work; each student has a chance to show independence in the learning process; teachers give students the ability to complete tasks at the speed they like.
- Effective teaching – the teacher monitors the students in the classroom, listens carefully to the students, and tries to understand their behavior; the teacher explains the importance of the lesson topics as well as the work goals; the teacher gives examples of life situations where topics can be used as examples; the teacher teaches in small steps (portions), provides detailed explanations and instructions on the work, and enables students to practice everything they learn during the class; learners have clear and detailed instructions for completing class assignments with lots of questions to check out how students understand the lessons; during practice, the teacher gives students feedback and corrects them in the event of errors; at each class or at least once a week, teachers provide comments on students’ work and progress.
- Teaching assessment – the teacher clearly defines the mode of assessment of student achievement and learning progress; the teacher monitors the student and praises the work of each student individually when he or she sees a progress in learning or an effort (attempt) to work better, sometimes in reliance on the assignments completed by the best research paper writers on demand; the teacher monitors the work during the class and rewards the student’s progress in learning in comparison to his / her previous successes, and not in comparison with other students in the class; teachers provide opportunities for students to improve their performance and grades; teachers evaluate students’ performance in the classroom by evaluating the results of their activities; the assessment is public.
- Cooperative (collaborative) learning – when students are working in a group, the teacher allows them to talk and share ideas about the task; the teacher encourages them to express their ideas about the task and to accept the ideas of other students; encourages them to cooperate in the classroom, to achieve a common goal of learning rather than competition among themselves; formed groups are heterogeneous (of different sex, interests, etc.), all actively participate and help each other in group work; teachers give students the task of exploring a topic with a group member and presenting the results to the class.
Appraisal of Individual Work and Modeling the Motivation Mechanisms
To promote motivation techniques, teachers should rely on:
- Individual work – students may have different tasks, so the success of one student is independent of another; teachers encourage students to achieve their exceptional results and not compete with others in the classroom.
- Modeling – teachers demonstrate different content (content, material) and skills (skills); students demonstrate different material and skills to each other; the teacher uses models in teaching visual effects that attract students’ attention, and presents the students with certain material, clearly and in small steps (portions), using diagrams, illustrations, films, etc., as implemented in the visual learning style that is more motivating. Teachers explain to students the causes of possible mistakes in the workflow to avoid or correct them; teachers show their students how to evaluate their own knowledge, encourage them to think about their own actions.
- IT in Learning – Teachers use a computer to prepare learning materials for students.
Practical pedagogical actions should be based on important knowledge of how to organize the educational process, which will stimulate the students’ motivation. Teachers acquire a positive and encouraging role in developing a learning process that would impact educational achievements effectively.
Motivation is based on both environmental and individual peculiarities of the educational process. Teachers should be helpful and supportive to let students stay motivated for the more advanced teamwork using traditional and interactive methods of enhancing the engagement and orientation on the expected outcomes of collective and individual work progress.